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Almost everyone is charging their LFP wrong!

In your case, 3.4V should be somewhere around 0.005 C not 0.05 C.
The devil is always in the details. That table assumes that you are charging in a benign environment. If you are charging while the system is under load, it gets somewhat more difficult to simply state a stop current.
 
The devil is always in the details. That table assumes that you are charging in a benign environment. If you are charging while the system is under load, it gets somewhat more difficult to simply state a stop current.
Totally agree. What you said and that charge termination is the only way to correctly and safely charge LFP is exactly why my post heavily emphasizes on BMS to Charger communication.
 
Active is moving power not burning it off. I tinkered with this through all of the testing phases & my nasty Thrash tests (pushing to the limit edges" and realized pretty quickly that starting Active balancing at a lower cell voltage actually takes the edge off. With the mix of cells I have, Used EV cells, Bulk, B & A grade, I got to see a bigger picture overall.

If I set to 3.400 to start Active, 2 of my packs will have close to 0.100 deviation BUT when Active starts @ 3.30 by the time we get to float they are 0.020-0.025 so it's a lot less work. I have No Idea WHY people keep thinking that Active wastes the energy, it doesn't, it moves it, with minimal loss.
I’ve left my active balancer connected 24/7 for over 6 months now and my pack is finally worry-free.

I’m a corner-case because I am bottom-balanced and discharge to 15-20% by 9pm (while never getting anywhere near to full charge).

My battery is so much bigger than maximum daily charge that risk of a runaway is non-existent and much greater concern is a drain-away (cell reaching 2.5V while pack still above 20%).

By leaving the active balancer on during the day I’m moving some energy I could avoid moving (with associated I^C losses I could avoid) but the hassle of rigging up controls to only turn on the balancer during overnight ‘rest’ from 9pm to 5am isn’t worth the trouble.

My battery goes to sleep at 9pm with all cells within 1% SOC of each other without fail, and that’s all I need.
 
In spite of the click-bait(ey) 'most of you are wrong' title of this thread, other members have given us useful information. OP still seems a little too defensive to these eyes.

If the cell voltage difference while charging to 3.43V is less than/equal to .01V, is it 'good enough' in terms of the big picture (cell longevity balanced with capacity utilization)? Opinions welcome.
 
This thread motivated me to get my JBD connected to a PC... . Since I have been using SA for months I couldn't see individual cell data...
How do things look?
Anything glaringly wrong I should change?
 

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Heck, if charged correctly I don't think balancing is required at all for months even. The process is inherently self-balancing.
What a crock of cow dung.
Even for the recommended float value, it doesn't makes sense to recommend a value above 3.4 V/Cell. Anything above 3.38V is just overcharging.
More manure.
I thought resting voltage at 50% was nearer to 3.3V? All my new grade A EVE cells arrived with 3.29V, which I understood was because they should be shipped / stored at about 50% SOC.
Proper fertilizer.
 
Too soon. RIP Pee Wee.

From candlepowerforums member jz6342:

“This one hit hard. I was on Mr. Rueben's protective detail when he brought the Playhouse to Seattle. He was one of the nicest and hardest working celebrities I'd had the chance to work with. He always made sure the team was taken care of and was always moving. And he was truly funny. He will be missed?”

 
Charge termination current varies with Voltage.

Manufacturer-specified termination condition3.65V @ 0.033C3.65V @ 0.05C
Cell voltage (V)Termination current (C)Termination current (C)
3.370​
0.000​
0.000​
3.400​
0.004​
0.005​
3.425​
0.006​
0.010​
3.450​
0.009​
0.014​
3.475​
0.012​
0.019​
3.500​
0.015​
0.023​
3.525​
0.018​
0.028​
3.550​
0.021​
0.032​
3.575​
0.024​
0.037​
3.600​
0.027​
0.041​
3.625​
0.030​
0.046​
3.650​
0.033​
0.050​

@sunshine_eggo you know much more about charging than I do. Does the article/link here make sense to you? It seems to be where OP is basing some of their theory from.

What I’m wondering is if the article is valid perhaps OP has misread it. Or if the article is invalid or bad advice, then OP has read it correctly but is misinformed.

Thoughts?
 
What I’m wondering is if the article is valid perhaps OP has misread it. Or if the article is invalid or bad advice, then OP has read it correctly but is misinformed.
You should never put your trust in random internet strangers, me included. Read the cell manufacturer's datasheet instead. There has to be a reason behind every single (decent) server-rack battery sold today coming with a RS485/CAN communication port.

EVE:
http://www.dcmax.com.tw/LF105(3.2V105Ah).pdf (Section 5.3)
(Section 4.2)

CALB:
https://cdn.shopify.com/s/files/1/1820/0269/files/L160F100B_data_sheet.pdf?v=1622844198 (Section 4.2.1)

All three say the exact same thing about charging. It is only a matter of reading them.
 
You should never put your trust in random internet strangers, me included. Read the cell manufacturer's datasheet instead. There has to be a reason behind every single (decent) server-rack battery sold today coming with a RS485/CAN communication port.

EVE:
http://www.dcmax.com.tw/LF105(3.2V105Ah).pdf (Section 5.3)
(Section 4.2)

CALB:
https://cdn.shopify.com/s/files/1/1820/0269/files/L160F100B_data_sheet.pdf?v=1622844198 (Section 4.2.1)

All three say the exact same thing about charging. It is only a matter of reading them.

Oh I agree completely. However, @sunshine_eggo is not a random internet stranger. I have "known" him for over 2 years know, but only on this forum. He has shown me time and time again, that he knows his stuff. I trust him much more than myself when it comes to all this technical battery stuff. I am not going to read the data sheet any more than I already have, because it might as well be written in Greek. It looks like plain enough language but I know it's not. It assumes some basic understanding of electricity and batteries. Understanding that I may or may not actually possess, I don't know. Because I don't know with confidence, I defer to people like sunshine_eggo.

As for trusting you yet, I don't know yet. What you're saying so far doesn't make sense to me. What I am trying to understand here is why it makes sense to you. You seem like a smart person but I wonder if you're misunderstanding something here but are just blind to that (we all do it at times!) There are Electrical Engineers on this forum and others who are nearly so without EE after their name, some of whom have replied to this thread calling out holes in your theory. You haven't convinced anyone here so far, but I am giving you the benefit of the doubt.

Your theory might be golden. But it will be considered unproven until many more people test your theory and get the same results you do. If they don't, then something is off somewhere. Could be all of them who have done something wrong, could be you, it would be hard to say without further inquiry. If you can't convince anyone to actually test your theory (or run your own rigorous scientific study), then this thread will just end up collecting dust.
 
@shvm
Maybe you should rename your post. It might have not come across very well with some. All information is good for discussion
BTW I don't think we've seen your credentials yet?
I have 40 years electrical HVAC experience in installation, service and engineering but I don't know or understand solar like the specialties I have experience with but can identify bogus information that doesn't jive with the electrical facts.
 
There has to be a reason behind every single (decent) server-rack battery sold today coming with a RS485/CAN communication port.

- Because people ask for it
- Because of regulation pushing for closed loop
- Because companies like Victron want to integrate with their inverter so it becomes part of their ecosystem (see also Pylontech)
- Because other applications of these batteries (telecom/industry/etc.) want remote monitoring and CAN/RS-485 is the standard there
- Because insurance companies will want every possible measure to be in place (these are not just aimed at DIY)
- Because the 'big boys' have it
- Because 'Lithium' is the same to some people and NCM/... and others are more sensitive, but these BMS work with those cells as well.
- ...
 
...
The problem that I faced was the same as everybody else faces here: Cells no longer in balance (showing 0.040 V deviation) even after a 'full charge' to 3.5V the very next day. (you will soon realize the reason behind these quotes later)
Clearly, If I was doing everything 'right' according to what everyone on the internet is doing my cells should retain their balance at least.
Overtime, people have tried to attack this problem by saying passive balancing simply isn't enough and how there is basically a need for active balancing to be the default offering in all BMS's in order to keep the cells in 'daily' balance.
Overtime, this has resulted in the demand for higher Active Balance Current in BMS's.
...

Excellent post, thanks for sharing this @shvm. The Nordkyn page you refer to also contains a lot of useful information.

Here are my notes and understanding for what it is worth. I have experience with lead acid, but no practical experience with LFP, so it should be taken with a grain of salt. Using the pack I'm building as an example below.

Any charge (absorption) voltage in the acceptable range (3.37 - 3.65 V) will result in a fully charged battery, it just takes longer with a lower voltage, but on the other hand the risk of hitting OVP for a cell is also lower. Charge voltage is just a matter of preference. Most people seem to be in the 3.45 V - 3.50 V range.

Over charging is an issue that can damage the cells. How damaging it is and how sensitive the cells are is a question mark, but why not try to avoid it if we can. It will occur at any charge voltage above the 100% SOC resting voltage (3.37 V) if you keep the cells there long enough. Overcharge is not something you can "see", it just results in cell degradation over time.

Charge should be terminated by measuring the charge current into the cell and stopped when it drops below 0.03C (or what ever the datasheet for your cell says). The 0.03C value is stated for a standardized 3.65 V absorption voltage, so it must be adjusted down if you use a different voltage. For example if you use 3.50 V the value is 0.023 C. (Look at the linked document in the OP). For a 600 Ah pack that is 13.8 A.

This procedure is not possible for most of us, because we don't have a fancy charge controller that can talk to the BMS and get the charge current. The charge controller doesn't know what current flows into the cells, it just knows the sum of what current flows into the cells AND into the inverter.

Since we can't use the current termination method, we use absorption time instead. Set the charge controller to 3.50 V absorption, 1 hr absorption time, and then disconnect the inverter, and start the charging. Go through the bulk, and then as soon as absorption starts (voltage reaches 3.50 V), measure how many minutes it takes to drop to 13.8 A. Stop the charge and enter this value as the new absorption time. This will ensure that even in the worst condition (full charge current and inverter turned off), the absorption stage will never over charge the cells. Most of the time the cells will instead be slightly under charged, which is not damaging.

Set the float to 3.37 V (the resting voltage of a 100% SOC cell) to prevent over charging. This will also prevent the cells from being discharged if the inverter takes a load (for as long as the sun shines). In theory it will also very very slowly get the cells to 100% SOC if that was not done in the absorption stage, but practically this will never happen in a reasonable time frame.
 
Excellent post, thanks for sharing this @shvm. The Nordkyn page you refer to also contains a lot of useful information.

Here are my notes and understanding for what it is worth. I have experience with lead acid, but no practical experience with LFP, so it should be taken with a grain of salt. Using the pack I'm building as an example below.

Any charge (absorption) voltage in the acceptable range (3.37 - 3.65 V) will result in a fully charged battery, it just takes longer with a lower voltage, but on the other hand the risk of hitting OVP for a cell is also lower. Charge voltage is just a matter of preference. Most people seem to be in the 3.45 V - 3.50 V range.

Over charging is an issue that can damage the cells. How damaging it is and how sensitive the cells are is a question mark, but why not try to avoid it if we can. It will occur at any charge voltage above the 100% SOC resting voltage (3.37 V) if you keep the cells there long enough. Overcharge is not something you can "see", it just results in cell degradation over time.

Charge should be terminated by measuring the charge current into the cell and stopped when it drops below 0.03C (or what ever the datasheet for your cell says). The 0.03C value is stated for a standardized 3.65 V absorption voltage, so it must be adjusted down if you use a different voltage. For example if you use 3.50 V the value is 0.023 C. (Look at the linked document in the OP). For a 600 Ah pack that is 13.8 A.



Since we can't use the current termination method, we use absorption time instead. Set the charge controller to 3.50 V absorption, 1 hr absorption time, and then disconnect the inverter, and start the charging. Go through the bulk, and then as soon as absorption starts (voltage reaches 3.50 V), measure how many minutes it takes to drop to 13.8 A. Stop the charge and enter this value as the new absorption time. This will ensure that even in the worst condition (full charge current and inverter turned off), the absorption stage will never over charge the cells. Most of the time the cells will instead be slightly under charged, which is not damaging.

Set the float to 3.37 V (the resting voltage of a 100% SOC cell) to prevent over charging. This will also prevent the cells from being discharged if the inverter takes a load (for as long as the sun shines). In theory it will also very very slowly get the cells to 100% SOC if that was not done in the absorption stage, but practically this will never happen in a reasonable time frame.
Finally someone who went to the length of reading things and even more importantly actually understood what is meant.

I can't overstate this enough! Thank you for making a good TL;DR :)
This procedure is not possible for most of us, because we don't have a fancy charge controller that can talk to the BMS and get the charge current. The charge controller doesn't know what current flows into the cells, it just knows the sum of what current flows into the cells AND into the inverter.
Precisely! Even with people not having access to BMS-Inverter comms, they can modify existing settings when it comes to when to turn balancing on or which voltage to float to emulate the correct model of charge termination.
 
You can tweak the settings to get a correct cell charge, balance and float but the controllers are generally not that precise.

Not all BMS are equal and batteries will have different parameters so check the battery specs before you go tweaking things.
 
Finally someone who went to the length of reading things and even more importantly actually understood what is meant.

Or those who better spent their time doing things the way they always have been for years (wrong according to you) with no problems (and have still balanced cells). <shrug>
 
Or those who better spent their time doing things the way they always have been for years (wrong according to you) with no problems (and have still balanced cells). <shrug>
Except, there's a difference.

My cells need balancing on the order of weeks to months.
Their cells need balancing every charge cycle. That's how I know what is better and what is wrong.
 

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